成人学位英语语法辅导 主谓共同

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所属分类:成人英语

??所谓“主谓共同”,就是指谓语在人称和数上有必要受主语的人称和数的分配。这是英语和汉语在构句里的又一悬殊之处。

2、主谓共同的品种:

⑴ 语法方法上的共同

主语为奇数方法,谓语动词用奇数方法;主语为复数方法,谓语动词为复数方法。如:

I often help him and he often helps me. 我常常协助他,他常常协助我。

We often help each other and learn from each other. 咱们常常彼此协助,彼此学习。

⑵ 意义上的共同

a.主语方法虽为奇数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。

如:The crowd were surrounding the government official. 人群围住住了这位政府官员。

奇数方法代表复数内容的词有:people, police, cattle等。如:

The Chinese people are brave and hard-working. 我国公民英勇而又勤劳。

b.主语方法为复数,而意义上却是奇数,谓语动词用奇数。

news以及以ics结束的学科称号(如:physics, politics, maths, economics等)。

⑶ 就近原则

就近原则即谓语动词的单、复数方法取决于更接近它的词语。

a. 并排主语用连词or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also等联接,谓语应同相邻的主语坚持人称和数的共同。如:

Not only the students but also the teacher enjoys listening to the music. 不只学生而且这位教师也喜爱听这种音乐。

Are either you or he wrong? 要么是你错,要么是他错吗?

b. 在there be 表存在的句式中,主语是两个或多个名词(短语)的并排时,be 的方法与更前边的一个名词(短语)共同。如:

There is a pen, two knives and several books on the table=There are two knives, a pen and several books on the table. 桌子上有一支钢笔、两把小刀和几本书。

C. 副词或介词短语在句首的倒装句中,有必要认准哪是主语。如:

Between the two
成人学位英语语法辅导 主谓共同
buildings stands a monument. 两幢楼之间耸峙着一块留念碑。

On the ship were over 2,200 people. More than 1,500 people lost their lives. Among those was the young woman. 船上有2,2001人,1,500多人丧生,这位年青妇女也在其间。

难点释疑:

名词作主语

1、当名词词组中心词为标明衡量、间隔、金额、时刻等复数名词时,一般可以根据意义共同的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个全体,谓语动词用奇数方法。

如:Two hours is enough for me to finish the work. 两小时对我来说结束这项作业满足了。

Two hundred dollars gives Jack much help. 两百美元帮了Jack大忙。

2、假定主语有more than one… 或many a…构成,尽管从意义上看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词仍然用奇数方法。

如: More than one comrade has asked to stay. 不止一位同志现已需求留下。

Many a passenger was killed in the accident. 许多乘客在这一次事端中丧生。

可是“more+复数名词+than one”规划及“more than one hundred+复数名词”规划之后,谓语动词一般用复数方法。如:

More members than one are against your plan. 不止一位成员对立你的方案。

3、不定代词each, every, no所润饰的名词及each…and each…, every…and every…, no…and no…, many a …and many a…规划作主语时,谓语动词仍用奇数方法。

如:Every man and
成人学位英语语法辅导 主谓共同
every woman is at work. 一切男的和女的都在作业。

Many a desk and many a bench is to be taken out of the hall. 许多课桌和凳子将被搬出大厅。

4、标明成双成套的名词,如:chopsticks (筷子), compasses, clothes, glasses, jeans, scissors, shoes, socks, trousers等,作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数方法;但如与a kind of, a pair of, the pair of, a series of 连用,作主语时,谓语动词用奇数方法。

如: The trousers are in the drawer. 裤子在抽屉里。

There is a pair of shoes under the bed. 有一双鞋在床下。

The pair of shoes is rather expensive. 这双袜子很贵。

5. 由联接词联接的名词作主语。

1)用and或both…and联接并排主语,标明不一样概念,谓语动词常用复数。

如:You and he both stand up. 你和他都站了起来。

Water and air are both important. 和空气都很重要。

Time and tide wait for no man. 年月不待人。

但并排规划充当主语标明全体概念时,即指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用奇数方法,这时and后边的名词没有冠词。

英语中并排规划标明全体概念的有:

2)标明兼职或有多个称号的人。

如:the worker and poet.这位工人兼诗人

The writer and teacher is speaking at the meeting. 这位教师兼作家正在会上讲话。

6、当主语后边跟有as well as, along
成人学位英语语法辅导 主谓共同
with, with, like, rather than, together with,等引导的词组时,其谓语动词的单、复数按主语的单、复数而定。

如:Your father as well as you is very kind to me. 不只你而且你的父亲对我都非常好。

He, like you and Xiao Li, is very clever. 他象你和小李相同非常聪明。

Mr Robbins, together with his wife and children, is leaving London for Paris. Robbins.先生明日将和老婆和孩子脱离伦敦去巴黎。

D. 分数、量词作主语 .

1、“分数或百分数+of+名词”构成的短语及由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, half of, a heap of, heaps of +名词”构成的短语作主语时,谓语动词的数与短语中of后边的名词的数坚持共同。如:More than 70 percent of the surface of ouor planet is covered by water. 咱们星球的表面百分之七十多都被水掩盖着。

One third of the students are girls in our group. 咱们队三分之一的学生是女人。

2、a great deal of/ a large amount of 润饰不可以数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词用奇数方法,如:

A great deal of rice was taken from the country to the city by railway. 许多大米经过铁路从乡下运往城市。

3、a number of+复数名词作主语,谓语动词用复数:the number of+复数名词作主语,谓语动词用奇数。如:

A number of students are going for a picnic this weekend. 这个周末许多学生将去野炊。

The number of days in February this year is 28. 本年二月份的天数是二十8天。

E. 名词化的描述词作主语

“the+描述词(或曩昔分词或如今分词)”

如:the brave, the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the sick, the wounded, the injured, the unemployed, the dying, the living 等规划担任主语标明一类人时,谓语动词常用复数方法,如:

The young are more active than the old. 青年人比晚年人活泼。

F. 动名词、不定式短语和从句作主语,谓语动词用奇数方法。如:

To learn a foreign language is not so difficult as you think. 学一门外语并不象你愿望的那么难。

Smoking is bad for health. 吸烟有害安康。

That he has won the game is known to us all. 他赢了这场竞赛是咱们众所周知的事。

但what引导的主语从句所指的具体内容是复数意义时,谓语动词一般用复数方法。如:

What we need is more time. 咱们需要的是更多的时刻。

What we need are good teachers. 咱们需要的是好教师。

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